Until recently phased array radar has been very expensive, used only for military applications where the cost of survival weighs in the balance. With the advent of low-cost microwave devices and unconventional architecture phased array radar is now within the reach of the hobbyist and consumer electronics developer.
In this post we will review the basics of phased-array radar and show examples of how to make low-cost short-range phased array radar systems — I built the one seen here in my garage!
Sense more with more elements by making phase array your next radar project. In a previous post the basics of radar were described where a typical radar system is made up of a large parabolic antenna that rotates.
The microwave beam projected by this antenna is swept over the horizon as it rotates. These elements are phase-coherent, meaning they are all phase-referenced to the same transmitter and receiver. A beam of microwave energy is focused by applying a phase rotation to each phase shifter.
To scan the beam rotate the phases of the phase shifters accordingly. Like the rotating parabolic dish, a phased array can scan the horizon but without the use of moving parts. To scan the entire horizon you often will need 4 or more arrays. This is why the SPY-1 radar uses 4 panels directed fore, aft, port, and starboard.
Long-range phased array radar systems focus their microwave beams in the far field using relatively simple phasing techniques to steer the beam. Most radar arrays that we might build for hobbyist or consumer applications will be operating at short ranges using low-cost wide-band microwave radar devices.
At these short ranges radar targets are often in the near-field where it becomes difficult to focus the antenna beam using conventional far-field methods without accounting for wavefront curvature. When a wave of any kind is emitted from a source it travels outwards in a spherical pattern. At long distances this sphere appears planar e.
There are several ways to account for wavefront curvature at short-ranges. You can apply a parabolic phase function to each of your phase shifters or you can receive or transmit with each element independently and back-out the wavefront curvature in software. There are many ways to achieve this all of which depart from the traditional phased array architectures.
Unfortunately using numerous digitizers at useful bandwidths for radar continues to be prohibitively expensive for consumer products and the hobbyist when a design requires 50, or elements. If you are willing to trade acquisition time for cost you could implement a much less expensive near-field array using switching techniques.
In a switched array system the transmit and receive ports of one low-cost radar sensor are switched or multiplexed across an array of antenna elements using microwave switches. Data from each combination of transmit and receive elements is digitized and stored where focusing or image reconstruction is computed in the digital domain.
Self-Levelling Radar Mounts
This method can support frame rates of 10, 20, or even 40 FPS. Specific examples of this technique are shown below. Anyone can build a switched array radar system. In this system I multiplexed the transmitter port and receiver port across 13 and 8 antennas respectively. The purpose of this radar was to prove the concept of imaging through concrete walls at stand-off ranges.
Given the interest in the MIT coffee can radar course, I worked with colleagues at Lincoln Laboratory to develop a phased array course. To make the low-cost student built radar kits we added a pair of microwave switches and used a switched-array layout nearly identical to the thru-wall radar.
These phased array radar devices were assembled using pegboard and WiFi antennas. The latest iteration of this radar device achieved 20 FPS. Anyone can build a phased array radar with WiFi antennas and pegboard.
Phased arrayed radar has been very expensive and is traditionally used in state-of-art air defense systems but today you can make your own at short-ranges.Weatherzone offers a range of free weather products that you can easily incorporate into your website. Weatherbrief is a premium telephone service allowing anyone to speak to a professional meteorologist. Weatherzone Business offers solutions that are innovative, tailored, flexible and responsive.
The origin may be changed by clicking elsewhere on the map. The colours and symbols used on the radar and satellite maps are described on our legend page. The Newcastle radar has a very good view in all directions and is the primary weather radar for the populated areas around Newcastle and the New South Wales central coast.
There is a tendency to observe areas of false echoes within approximately kilometres of the radar over the sea. These anomalous propagations are easily identified and are displayed as a mass of low intensity echoes, constantly changing shape with no apparent direction of movement from one radar scan to the next.
True rain echoes normally have a consistent direction of movement. This radar is often unable to detect light showers or drizzle beyond a range of kilometres. Heavy rain over the radar site will cause attenuation of all signals. Path attenuation also occurs when the radar beam passes through an intense thunderstorm cell; the returned signal from cells further along that path will be reduced.
Apart from these features, the radar performs well and gives a reasonably accurate representation of rainfall intensity. Despite only being 40km away from each other, Bunbury and Busselton in Western Australia could not have had a more different weather on Thursday. Weatherzone makes it easy for you to choose the access level that suits you best from a huge range of weather information and tools unrivalled in Australia.
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Put weather on your site Increase web traffic and loyalty with dynamic weather content Free weather feeds.High-resolution, power-frugal solid-state digital radar is all the rage. Radar remains the single most important collision-avoidance device available to both leisure and commercial sea-going vessels, and now that a clutch of high-performance, instant-on solid-state radar systems have come onto the market, sailors can buy high-definition radar at a reasonable price.
Out go the heavy, power-hungry magnetron pulse scanners, to be replaced by lightweight, low-power solid-state technology. Using sophisticated electronic filters and high-tech features such as beam sharpening and Doppler target speed recognition, the resolution and intelligence of these modern radars is astonishingly good. Older magnetron radars output a crude, high-power pulse and then wait for it to be partially returned before emitting a second pulse.
This time delay leads to a blurred echo being pasted onto the screen, and sometimes no echo at all in rough sea conditions. Modern Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave FMCW radar, called Broadband by the Navico brands that use it, transmits a continuous wave, but with a variable frequency, enabling the receiving electronics to identify the signal and discriminate easily between each return.
This, along with greatly increased processing power, not only enables higher range resolution, especially at very close ranges but provides improved horizontal separation between more distant targets. Raymarine, Garmin and Furuno have all recently adopted another solid-state radar technology called Pulse Compression. As with magnetron radar, the scanner transmits a pulse, but one that is frequency-modulated, enabling it to resolve the target more readily by analyzing the full array of returned signals simultaneously.
Solid-state radar further benefits owners of sailboats by having a much lower power draw and weighing less than a traditional scanner. The Doppler-assisted Target Analyzer function is a quick and easy way to identify targets that might present an imminent risk of collision.
Put simply, any vessel travelling toward your own is painted in red, while everything else is is shown in green. Another useful feature is RezBoost beam sharpening—which increases the image resolution by giving a horizontal beam width similar to that of an open array antenna. This greatly improves horizontal separation between smaller targets and helps with identification. We found the radar features of the Furuno easy to find, use and operate, although there are quite comprehensive adjustments possible in the deeper setup.
Otherwise, setting up the basics, such as heading alignment, guard zones and exclusion sectors is straightforward. The NXT radar also offers a dual-range display facility, which allows the user to split the screen into two windows, each with a radar image, but at two different range levels. This is similar to the dual-chart display found on most MFDs these days, but this allows you to locate channel buoys close up while keeping an overall picture of your wider surroundings.
It does have some limitations, however, in that the range for each window is limited to 12nm max and the antenna rotation speed to 24rpm.Not long ago, bought a Srf02 ultrasonic sensor for my hobby projects. The first project that I did was a DIY radar that draws a map. When I finished it I wanted to share this project and here I am writing this instructable.
The principle of this radar is this: The servo motor is moving from 0 to degrees and is taking a measurement at each step. The value of the measurement is sent to the PC and a program written in Vb. Net draws a map using some trigonometrical functions. Let's go on with the Materials. Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson.
Do It Yourself RADAR Arches
You just finished the hardware part. There are 2 softwares involved in this project: -The arduino software -The pc software. The arduino software moves the servo and sends the values of the sensor at each step via Serial to the PC software The pc software does the drawing of the map.
It is written in vb. The map is then displayed on the form. The pc software is poor and you are invited to make it better if you want and know how. This in my opinion was a fun to do project from that i learned a lot. Hope you like it. If you have questions you can ask me at cristidragomir97 live. If you like it please vote my project for the microcontroller and toy chellange.
Neat little project though on a technical note you're using an ultrasonic sensor which makes it a sonar, not a radar. Your use of radar in the name implies using radio waves which it's not. Reply 6 years ago on Introduction. Please remove the Christi.
My anti virus flagged it as having about 10 trojans. Take it out please. I'm also following up with an email to the site admins as I'm sure they wouldn't want their website to be identified as an infection vector. Reply 8 years ago on Step 3. If you refer to Radar. I can download the both files with IE and Chrome. Reply 8 years ago on Introduction.Radar was the next item on the list in the continuing process of getting Andiamo, our Wauquiez Pretorien 35, outfitted for extended voyaging.
I talked to a lot of folks and decided to install the radar on its own dedicated mast, mounted on the stern. I also added a separate mast, mirroring the location of the radar mast, for a future wind generator. The two masts were engineered to cantilever out of the deck, so there's no bracing to get in the way.
One of the advantages of having a separate mast is that I can move our antenna farm GPS, 2-meter and second VHF up from the pushpit, out of harm's way. Another advantage is that we can use the masts as derricks by adding booms, and we can use the booms as davits for carrying the dink during short hops in protected waters.
We were on a very tight outfitting budget, so the challenge was to figure out how to do a professional-looking installation with amateur tools and skills. The first thing was to find components for fabricating and installing the masts. There was only a small area of deck behind the coaming where the mast would fit and clear the pushpit.
I found a manufacturer of stock stainless-steel pipe and tubing flanges that I could adapt to my needs. I purchased two and had a local machine shop trim the flanges and drill the holes. I later tapped the side holes for the setscrews. I chose a pipe flange that was larger than my tubing size so there would be room for finely adjusting the mast to be true and plumb. Selecting oversized flanges also solved the problem of compensating for the deck's camber. The flanges allow for tolerance in the installation.Garmin Fantom 18 Radar Testing in my Crooked PilotHouse boat DIY
When the fabrication was finished, I polished the stainless to a near mirror finish to reduce its tendency to corrode. The flanges were only available in typeso I'll make sure they stay well waxed. Next came the masts themselves. I found a local vendor of stainless-steel pipe and tubing. The wall thickness is enough to drill and tap, or the components could simply through-bolt onto the mast.The browser you are currently using is not supported by Fisheries Supply. Unsupported browsers put your security at risk.
Please upgrade to a different browser below. Enter Fisheries Part Number. Enter Valid Qty Min. Enter Quantity. When the fog rolls in and visibility on the water is restricted, having a quality marine radar system may be the only thing that stands between you and disaster. Fisheries Supply offers a complete line of boat radars and marine radar mounts from trusted brands like GarminRay MarineSeaview and Edson Marine.
Why should you upgrade? Because modern radomes give higher resolution with quicker performance — along with improved ability to immediately adjust to your surroundings in varying conditions.
Sign up to receive special offers and product promotions from Fisheries Supply! Session Expiring. Due to inactivity your session is about to expire with in 10 minute s. You are using an unsupported browser. Shop By Department. Marine Radars When the fog rolls in and visibility on the water is restricted, having a quality marine radar system may be the only thing that stands between you and disaster. Narrow Your Results. Adapters 2. Collars 1. Guards 1. Tubing 2. Pad Eyes 1.
Mounts Pedestal Bases 1. Spacers 6. Supports 1. Instrument Housings 1. Seaview Edson Marine 7. Garmin 5. Raymarine 5. Lewmar 1. Icom 1. Show 40 80 per page. View By. Deck Mounted Base for Radar Mast. Radar Platform. Small to Large Sized Platform.Our Self-Levelling Radar Mount range ensures your radar stays level with the horizon at all times for optimum antenna performance. As the boat heels or rolls, the radar is kept horizontal preventing target loss and giving the best possible radar picture.
Our Backstay mounted version positions your radar away from any interference, leaving a clear deck free from obstruction.
High-resolution, Power-frugal Solid-state Digital Radar
The main levelling unit features a fine tuned damping system which reacts to major changes in heel angle of the boat. It is entirely maintenance free and no power is required. Cables are routed down a cable channel for a neat install. Stainless radome cradle has a fine tune adjustment for backstay angle and the product can be installed on both adjustable and split backstays see FAQ for further information. Our Mast mounted version raises the antenna clear of the deck and any obstructions for increased radar horizon.
Attaches to mast with four swivel feet, matching a variety of mast profiles. A 12 point fixing using monel rivets ensures a secure fixing. The anodised aluminium base gives choice when deciding where you wish to install the pole mount. Base enables pole to be installed on both sloping transoms and level decks. Unscrew base and remove pole for racing or winter storage, leaving just low profile base on deck.
The Self-Levelling Mast Mount is fitted to the pole and a top platform supports the satcom dome above the radar to ensure the best performance from both applications. Versatility when deciding where you want to install the pole mount. Fine turned damping system which reacts to major changes in heel angle of boat whilst eliminating all small oscillations ensuring your radar is level at all times.
Self-Levelling Radar Mounts Our Self-Levelling Radar Mount range ensures your radar stays level with the horizon at all times for optimum antenna performance.
For Radomes Our Backstay mounted version positions your radar away from any interference, leaving a clear deck free from obstruction. Features: Hydraulic Damping The main levelling unit features a fine tuned damping system which reacts to major changes in heel angle of the boat.
Bespoke Mounting Pole 2. High strength universal base for mounting pole Eliminates loading on backstay. Base can be deck, transom or chainplate mounted. Suitable for any yacht Stainless radome cradle has a fine tune adjustment for backstay angle and the product can be installed on both adjustable and split backstays see FAQ for further information.
Nylon Backstay Bushing Supplied Clamps around backstay allowing cable tension to be adjusted. Mount Your Radar Higher Additional 0. For Radomes Our Mast mounted version raises the antenna clear of the deck and any obstructions for increased radar horizon. Lightweight head unit Reduced weight aloft - complete system weighs only 3. Suitable for any yacht Stainless radome cradle has a fine tune adjustment for different mast rake angles. For Radomes: Features: Hydraulic Damping The main levelling unit features a fine tuned damping system which reacts to major changes in heel angle of the boat.
Easily Removed Unscrew base and remove pole for racing or winter storage, leaving just low profile base on deck. Features: Bespoke Aluminium Mounting Pole 2. Adjustable Pole Base Versatility when deciding where you want to install the pole mount. Self-Levelling radar Fine turned damping system which reacts to major changes in heel angle of boat whilst eliminating all small oscillations ensuring your radar is level at all times.
Also available with a stainless steel pole. Contact your dealer or Scanstrut for further information. Please see a range of accessories and fitting that aid fixing and performance of Scanstrut products.
Self-Levelling Radar Mounts.